Kirsch, Daniel L. and Smith, Ray B. The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the management of chronic pain: a review. NeuroRehabilitation, 14(2):85-94, 2000. Download Article.
This is the thirtieth published review of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), however it is the first to review this modality for the treatment of pain. CES has a growing history of applications in rehabilitation medicine in the United States dating back to early 1970. As a recognized non-drug treatment of anxiety, depression and insomnia, CES gained its first major application in the field of addiction treatment and rehabilitation. By the mid 1980s research was showing additional important uses of CES in the treatment of closed head injured patients, and in paraplegic and quadriplegic patients. The most recent research is showing CES to be highly effective in the management of chronic pain patients. It may be elevating the pain threshold due to its stress reducing effects when anxiety and depression are reduced below clinical levels. Modern theorists of a pain neuromatrix in the cerebral cortex may provide an additional basis for understanding CES mechanisms in the control of pain related disorders.
This comprehensive review article covers the following areas in which CES is now in use (with 44 references):
Research in Rehabilitation Medicine
Rehabilitation of addicted persons
The use of CES in paraplegic and quadriplegic patients
The use of CES in Closed Head Injured Patients
The use of CES in physical therapy
Research in chronic pain patients
Research in spinal pain
Research in fibromyalgia
Research in headaches
Research on dental pain